At least five leaf growth eras can be discerned on this Glottiphyllum carnosum stem. Could they all be representing annual seasons, making the plant at least five years old? Whatever the answer, some remarkable signs of plant fortitude are represented here as recorded in vegetation history.
The photo was taken in September at Calitzdorp where these plants are at home, albeit a spartan home. Hard times may prevent the latest, live, yellow-green leaves from reaching the length of their predecessors. Rain is the critical factor, the absence of which make local plants evolve; yet again facing another big challenge if global warming escalates (Vlok and Schutte-Vlok, 2015; Smith, et al, 1998; iNaturalist).